# Doing Math in R

This is my guide on doing math in R.

R programming books on Amazon**Doing Math in R**

Working in R means doing a lot of calculations. This is what R is for and why it is called a statistical programming language. You can do simple math and work with vectors. In fact, there are a few different categories. They are:

- Arithmetic
- Functions
- Vectors
- Matrixes

The arithmetic operators should be familiar to everyone. These are the basic math operators everyone learned when they were kids.

- \[x + y\] y added to x
- \[x - y\] y subtracted from x
- \[x * y\] x multiplied by y
- \[\frac{x}{y}\] x divided by y
- \[x ^ y\] x raised to the power of y
- \[x %% y\] remainder of x divided by y
- \[x% / %y\] x divided by y but rounded down

Let’s move to the next section, mathematical functions. These are the traditional algebraic functions and they work the same way.

- abs(x) takes the absolute value of x
- log x takes the logarithm of x with base y
- exp(x) returns the exponential of x
- sqrt(x) returns the square root of x
- factorial (x) returns the factorial of x!
- choose(x,y) returns the number of possible combinations when drawing y elements from x possibilities

You can take the log of a number like this:

`Log 1.5`

You can take the log of a series of numbers:

`log(2:4)`

That function takes the natural log of the numbers 2,3,4

You can specify a base:

`log(2:4, base=4)`

The other functions work similarly, I will get into them more when we need to.

You can round numbers easily in R. You just use the ‘round()’ function.

`round(454567.2333445, digits=3)`

Significant digits can be done just as easily.

`signif(333.334455, digits=3)`

Trig functions are also available. By default, R gives results in radians. So, if you need a result in degrees, you will have to convert it. I will show you how, though.

`cos(120)`

Gives results in radians

`cos(95 * pi / 180)`

Gives results in degrees

**Working With Vectors**

A vector is a one-dimensional set of values. It looks like this:

`x=c(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8)`

They have to be the same type, such as integers.

There is a function, ‘str()’, that lets you look at any particular vector and see its properties. Use it like this:

`str(x)`

To see the length of a vector:

`length(x)`

Vectors can be several different types:

- Numeric
- Integer
- Logical
- Character
- Datetime
- Factors

You can test a vector to see what kind it is:

`is.numeric(x)`

`is.character(x)`

`is.logical(x)`

Those are all separate tests to determine what kind of vector you have. You will get the output of ‘true’ when you have a match.

To create vectors you can enter in numbers or use a sequence of numbers. I will show you how to do both. It is common to assign a variable to your data so it is easy to work on it. The variable is ‘x’.

`x=c(22,33,44,55,66,77,88,99)`

The ‘c’ is a function itself and combines the numbers in the parentheses to make a vector.

You can also use the colon operator to create a sequence of numbers.

`x=c(2:7)`

This creates a vector with the number 2,3,4,5,6,7

You can include negative numbers too.

`x=c(7:-2)`

R lets you combine vectors when you need to. If we have:

`x=c(1:9)`

`y=c(11:16)`

We can combine them like this:

`total=c(x,y)`

We can repeat vectors too. We do this with the ‘rep()’ function.

If we want to repeat a vector a set number of times, we do this:

`rep(c(1:9), times=4)`

When we want to repeat every value:

`rep(c(1:9), each=3)`

We can also tell R how often to repeat each value:

`rep(c(1,9), times=c(3,4)`

**Looking At Vector Values**

Once we have a vector, R lets us look at and work with individual values. The square brackets let us extract a value from the vector. We just indicate the position we want inside of the square brackets.

`X[3]`

This gives us the 3rd number from the start of the vector.

We can get more than one position value at once:

`x[c(1,2,3)]`

This will give us the first 3 positions of the vector.

You can change the value of a vector.

`x=c(1,2,3,4,5)`

Let us change the last value from 5 to 3

`X[5] = 3`

Now, our vector has been changed to what we want to reflect it as.

**Making Copies of Vectors**

Before working with an important vector set of data, make a copy of it. You do not want to accidentally change it without knowing it. Do it like this:

`X.copy = x`

Now you can do your work with a little less worry.

**Comparing Values**

To compare values in a vector:

`X > 5`

This gives us logical values. Any time there is a value greater than 5, the output is true.

We can also check positions that are greater than 5.

`which(x > 5)`

This shows us which positions in the vector are greater than 5.

These are the logical operators in R:

- X == y
- X != y
- X > y
- X >= y
- X < y
- X <= y
- X & y
- X | y
- !x
- xor(x,y)

**More Arithmetic Operations**

Once we have a vector set up and kind of know how it works, we can start doing more with it. I recently took a statistics class and I used many of these functions to great effect. It really speeds things up. The idea of a vector is to look at each value in a vector and do something with it. That is what functions do once we have a vector set up. Here are the arithmetic functions that are pretty useful:

- sum(x) calculates the sum of values in the vector x
- prod(x) calculates the product of all the values in the vector x
- min(x) gives the minimum of all values in x
- max(x) gives the max of all the values in the vector x
- cumsum(x) gives the cumulative sum of all the values in the vector x
- cumprod(x) gives the cumulative product of all the values in the vector x
- cumin(x) gives the minimum for all values in x from the start of the vector to the position indicated
- cummax(x) gives the maximum for all values in x from the start of the vector until the position indicated
- diff(x) gives for every value the difference between that value and the next value in the vector